Kim Anderson - It's the Stories You Tell: Questions of Ethical Design and Implementation in Research Involving Indigenous Peoples
In this talk, Kim Anderson will share her experiences of conducting research with and for Indigenous peoples. Dr. Anderson ran a consulting business, doing social and health policy research with Indigenous NGOs and communities for fifteen years prior to taking an Associate Professor position at Wilfrid Laurier University, where she now conducts community partnered research. Throughout this time there has been an evolution in expectations on the part of Indigenous communities in terms of what is considered ethical research, how Indigenous communities must be engaged in research and how to avoid replicating abusive practices of the past. Dr. Anderson will reflect on this evolution and invite discussion as to the implications for the big data project proposed by Wilfrid Laurier University and the City of Brantford.
Justin Longo - Data for Policymaking: Implications of the Digitally Invisible
Policy analytics is the combination of new data sources with new data analytics techniques for informing and directing public policy. However, those who do not use these devices may be rendered digitally invisible if digital signals from their daily actions are not generated or captured. Failing to observe their lived experience may result in policy analytics being biased, and policy interventions being misdirected. We conduct an exploratory study focused on homeless individuals in Phoenix Arizona, in the context of extreme heat exposure. Ten homeless research participants carried a temperature-sensing device during an extreme heat week, with their individually experienced temperatures (IETs) compared to outdoor ambient temperatures (OATs). A non-homeless, digitally connected sample of 10 university students was observed in contrast, with their IETs analyzed in the same way. Surveys of participants complement the temperature measures. Our findings indicate that individuals dealing with homelessness and university students interaction differently with the physical environment and with technology.
Kristen Thomasen - Ethically Leveraging Automated Technologies: On Drones and Data
Drone technology raises new challenges for privacy and data collection, which are increasingly relevant to cities that seek to either use drones to collect information; or that want to regulate drones and the municipal spaces where they operate. Several Canadian cities have started to consider whether and how to address drone use within municipal space, particularly in response to local concerns about privacy. This presentation will critically discuss some of the legal challenges and constraints that arise as municipalities start to deal with drones and the data they collect, and what this means for both privacy and drone regulation moving forward.
Ann Cavoukian - Big Data for Big Cities: Must Embed Privacy, by Design, to Reap the Benefits (Keynote Address)
Big Data is being sought out for many applications, including municipal efforts to make cities "smart". Ethical strategies for data collection and use must lead by incorporating privacy, in order to ensure accountability and the responsible use of the data. While some believe that fundamental privacy protections will be challenged by the operation of Big Data analytics, Dr. Cavoukian dispels the notion that privacy acts as a barrier to analytics and the innovations they can spark. She argues that the limiting paradigm of "zero-sum" -- that you can either have privacy or innovation, but not both -- is an outdated, win/lose model of approaching the question of privacy in the age of Big Data and IoT. Instead a "positive-sum" solution is needed in which the interests of both sides may be met, in a doubly-enabling, "win-win" manner through Privacy by Design (PbD). PbD is predicated on the rejection of zero-sum propositions by proactively identifying the risks and embedding the necessary protective measures into the design and data architecture involved.
Geoffrey Rockwell - Caring for Data as Scholarship: An Argument for the Recognition of Data Caretaking
The curation and long term stewardship of information about our lives has long been the domain of historians and archivists, but with new instant technologies we all have to learn to manage information, especially academics. The agencies that fund us are moving to requiring academics to develop Data Management Plans when we start projects. In this presentation I will argue that the curation and stewardship of data should not be seen as another burden but as scholarly activity itself when done carefully and that we need to develop academic cultures that recognize it as such. We academics need to recognize the value of the data we gather and generate for Canadians over the long term and recognize the caretaking involved. As we pay attention to the organization of data as important scholarly activity we also need to attend to the ethical issues raised by the ease with which data can be scraped and blasted over the net. I will end by proposing that an ethics of care can give us a framework for dealing with the uncertainties of data curation ethics in changing times.
Harvey Miller - Big Data for Healthy Places: Building Healthier Environments through Opportunistic GIScience
A healthy city is a built environment that encourages physical, mental and social well-being. Few neighborhoods and communities in the United States and increasingly elsewhere in the world are healthy places. A major factor are changes in built environments and lifestyles that have not only eliminated physical activity from daily lives but also can make physical activity unpleasant, unhealthy and unsafe. The development and deployment of sensors connected to location-aware technologies are improving the scientific understanding of built environment characteristics that facilitate healthy and safe physical activity. This presentation argues that integrating data from these with new sources of urban data can allow for deeper understanding of the intricate relationships between individuals, environments and healthy places. I will provide examples from a quasi-experimental study of public transit and physical activity in Salt Lake City, Utah, USA. I will also discuss the concept of Geographic Information Observatories (GIOs) extend the capabilities for observatory-based science to the broad geographic data associated with a place or region.